General Public License Binance Academy

Ultimate glossary of crypto currency terms, acronyms and abbreviations

I thought it would be really cool to have an ultimate guide for those new to crypto currencies and the terms used. I made this mostly for beginner’s and veterans alike. I’m not sure how much use you will get out of this. Stuff gets lost on Reddit quite easily so I hope this finds its way to you. Included in this list, I have included most of the terms used in crypto-communities. I have compiled this list from a multitude of sources. The list is in alphabetical order and may include some words/terms not exclusive to the crypto world but may be helpful regardless.
2FA
Two factor authentication. I highly advise that you use it.
51% Attack:
A situation where a single malicious individual or group gains control of more than half of a cryptocurrency network’s computing power. Theoretically, it could allow perpetrators to manipulate the system and spend the same coin multiple times, stop other users from completing blocks and make conflicting transactions to a chain that could harm the network.
Address (or Addy):
A unique string of numbers and letters (both upper and lower case) used to send, receive or store cryptocurrency on the network. It is also the public key in a pair of keys needed to sign a digital transaction. Addresses can be shared publicly as a text or in the form of a scannable QR code. They differ between cryptocurrencies. You can’t send Bitcoin to an Ethereum address, for example.
Altcoin (alternative coin): Any digital currency other than Bitcoin. These other currencies are alternatives to Bitcoin regarding features and functionalities (e.g. faster confirmation time, lower price, improved mining algorithm, higher total coin supply). There are hundreds of altcoins, including Ether, Ripple, Litecoin and many many others.
AIRDROP:
An event where the investors/participants are able to receive free tokens or coins into their digital wallet.
AML: Defines Anti-Money Laundering laws**.**
ARBITRAGE:
Getting risk-free profits by trading (simultaneous buying and selling of the cryptocurrency) on two different exchanges which have different prices for the same asset.
Ashdraked:
Being Ashdraked is essentially a more detailed version of being Zhoutonged. It is when you lose all of your invested capital, but you do so specifically by shorting Bitcoin. The expression “Ashdraked” comes from a story of a Romanian cryptocurrency investor who insisted upon shorting BTC, as he had done so successfully in the past. When the price of BTC rose from USD 300 to USD 500, the Romanian investor lost all of his money.
ATH (All Time High):
The highest price ever achieved by a cryptocurrency in its entire history. Alternatively, ATL is all time low
Bearish:
A tendency of prices to fall; a pessimistic expectation that the value of a coin is going to drop.
Bear trap:
A manipulation of a stock or commodity by investors.
Bitcoin:
The very first, and the highest ever valued, mass-market open source and decentralized cryptocurrency and digital payment system that runs on a worldwide peer to peer network. It operates independently of any centralized authorities
Bitconnect:
One of the biggest scams in the crypto world. it was made popular in the meme world by screaming idiot Carlos Matos, who infamously proclaimed," hey hey heeeey” and “what's a what's a what's up wasssssssssuuuuuuuuuuuuup, BitConneeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeect!”. He is now in the mentally ill meme hall of fame.
Block:
A package of permanently recorded data about transactions occurring every time period (typically about 10 minutes) on the blockchain network. Once a record has been completed and verified, it goes into a blockchain and gives way to the next block. Each block also contains a complex mathematical puzzle with a unique answer, without which new blocks can’t be added to the chain.
Blockchain:
An unchangeable digital record of all transactions ever made in a particular cryptocurrency and shared across thousands of computers worldwide. It has no central authority governing it. Records, or blocks, are chained to each other using a cryptographic signature. They are stored publicly and chronologically, from the genesis block to the latest block, hence the term blockchain. Anyone can have access to the database and yet it remains incredibly difficult to hack.
Bullish:
A tendency of prices to rise; an optimistic expectation that a specific cryptocurrency will do well and its value is going to increase.
BTFD:
Buy the fucking dip. This advise was bestowed upon us by the gods themselves. It is the iron code to crypto enthusiasts.
Bull market:
A market that Cryptos are going up.
Consensus:
An agreement among blockchain participants on the validity of data. Consensus is reached when the majority of nodes on the network verify that the transaction is 100% valid.
Crypto bubble:
The instability of cryptocurrencies in terms of price value
Cryptocurrency:
A type of digital currency, secured by strong computer code (cryptography), that operates independently of any middlemen or central authoritie
Cryptography:
The art of converting sensitive data into a format unreadable for unauthorized users, which when decoded would result in a meaningful statement.
Cryptojacking:
The use of someone else’s device and profiting from its computational power to mine cryptocurrency without their knowledge and consent.
Crypto-Valhalla:
When HODLers(holders) eventually cash out they go to a place called crypto-Valhalla. The strong will be separated from the weak and the strong will then be given lambos.
DAO:
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations. It defines A blockchain technology inspired organization or corporation that exists and operates without human intervention.
Dapp (decentralized application):
An open-source application that runs and stores its data on a blockchain network (instead of a central server) to prevent a single failure point. This software is not controlled by the single body – information comes from people providing other people with data or computing power.
Decentralized:
A system with no fundamental control authority that governs the network. Instead, it is jointly managed by all users to the system.
Desktop wallet:
A wallet that stores the private keys on your computer, which allow the spending and management of your bitcoins.
DILDO:
Long red or green candles. This is a crypto signal that tells you that it is not favorable to trade at the moment. Found on candlestick charts.
Digital Signature:
An encrypted digital code attached to an electronic document to prove that the sender is who they say they are and confirm that a transaction is valid and should be accepted by the network.
Double Spending:
An attack on the blockchain where a malicious user manipulates the network by sending digital money to two different recipients at exactly the same time.
DYOR:
Means do your own research.
Encryption:
Converting data into code to protect it from unauthorized access, so that only the intended recipient(s) can decode it.
Eskrow:
the practice of having a third party act as an intermediary in a transaction. This third party holds the funds on and sends them off when the transaction is completed.
Ethereum:
Ethereum is an open source, public, blockchain-based platform that runs smart contracts and allows you to build dapps on it. Ethereum is fueled by the cryptocurrency Ether.
Exchange:
A platform (centralized or decentralized) for exchanging (trading) different forms of cryptocurrencies. These exchanges allow you to exchange cryptos for local currency. Some popular exchanges are Coinbase, Bittrex, Kraken and more.
Faucet:
A website which gives away free cryptocurrencies.
Fiat money:
Fiat currency is legal tender whose value is backed by the government that issued it, such as the US dollar or UK pound.
Fork:
A split in the blockchain, resulting in two separate branches, an original and a new alternate version of the cryptocurrency. As a single blockchain forks into two, they will both run simultaneously on different parts of the network. For example, Bitcoin Cash is a Bitcoin fork.
FOMO:
Fear of missing out.
Frictionless:
A system is frictionless when there are zero transaction costs or trading retraints.
FUD:
Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt regarding the crypto market.
Gas:
A fee paid to run transactions, dapps and smart contracts on Ethereum.
Halving:
A 50% decrease in block reward after the mining of a pre-specified number of blocks. Every 4 years, the “reward” for successfully mining a block of bitcoin is reduced by half. This is referred to as “Halving”.
Hardware wallet:
Physical wallet devices that can securely store cryptocurrency maximally. Some examples are Ledger Nano S**,** Digital Bitbox and more**.**
Hash:
The process that takes input data of varying sizes, performs an operation on it and converts it into a fixed size output. It cannot be reversed.
Hashing:
The process by which you mine bitcoin or similar cryptocurrency, by trying to solve the mathematical problem within it, using cryptographic hash functions.
HODL:
A Bitcoin enthusiast once accidentally misspelled the word HOLD and it is now part of the bitcoin legend. It can also mean hold on for dear life.
ICO (Initial Coin Offering):
A blockchain-based fundraising mechanism, or a public crowd sale of a new digital coin, used to raise capital from supporters for an early stage crypto venture. Beware of these as there have been quite a few scams in the past.
John mcAfee:
A man who will one day eat his balls on live television for falsely predicting bitcoin going to 100k. He has also become a small meme within the crypto community for his outlandish claims.
JOMO:
Joy of missing out. For those who are so depressed about missing out their sadness becomes joy.
KYC:
Know your customer(alternatively consumer).
Lambo:
This stands for Lamborghini. A small meme within the investing community where the moment someone gets rich they spend their earnings on a lambo. One day we will all have lambos in crypto-valhalla.
Ledger:
Away from Blockchain, it is a book of financial transactions and balances. In the world of crypto, the blockchain functions as a ledger. A digital currency’s ledger records all transactions which took place on a certain block chain network.
Leverage:
Trading with borrowed capital (margin) in order to increase the potential return of an investment.
Liquidity:
The availability of an asset to be bought and sold easily, without affecting its market price.
of the coins.
Margin trading:
The trading of assets or securities bought with borrowed money.
Market cap/MCAP:
A short-term for Market Capitalization. Market Capitalization refers to the market value of a particular cryptocurrency. It is computed by multiplying the Price of an individual unit of coins by the total circulating supply.
Miner:
A computer participating in any cryptocurrency network performing proof of work. This is usually done to receive block rewards.
Mining:
The act of solving a complex math equation to validate a blockchain transaction using computer processing power and specialized hardware.
Mining contract:
A method of investing in bitcoin mining hardware, allowing anyone to rent out a pre-specified amount of hashing power, for an agreed amount of time. The mining service takes care of hardware maintenance, hosting and electricity costs, making it simpler for investors.
Mining rig:
A computer specially designed for mining cryptocurrencies.
Mooning:
A situation the price of a coin rapidly increases in value. Can also be used as: “I hope bitcoin goes to the moon”
Node:
Any computing device that connects to the blockchain network.
Open source:
The practice of sharing the source code for a piece of computer software, allowing it to be distributed and altered by anyone.
OTC:
Over the counter. Trading is done directly between parties.
P2P (Peer to Peer):
A type of network connection where participants interact directly with each other rather than through a centralized third party. The system allows the exchange of resources from A to B, without having to go through a separate server.
Paper wallet:
A form of “cold storage” where the private keys are printed onto a piece of paper and stored offline. Considered as one of the safest crypto wallets, the truth is that it majors in sweeping coins from your wallets.
Pre mining:
The mining of a cryptocurrency by its developers before it is released to the public.
Proof of stake (POS):
A consensus distribution algorithm which essentially rewards you based upon the amount of the coin that you own. In other words, more investment in the coin will leads to more gain when you mine with this protocol In Proof of Stake, the resource held by the “miner” is their stake in the currency.
PROOF OF WORK (POW) :
The competition of computers competing to solve a tough crypto math problem. The first computer that does this is allowed to create new blocks and record information.” The miner is then usually rewarded via transaction fees.
Protocol:
A standardized set of rules for formatting and processing data.
Public key / private key:
A cryptographic code that allows a user to receive cryptocurrencies into an account. The public key is made available to everyone via a publicly accessible directory, and the private key remains confidential to its respective owner. Because the key pair is mathematically related, whatever is encrypted with a public key may only be decrypted by its corresponding private key.
Pump and dump:
Massive buying and selling activity of cryptocurrencies (sometimes organized and to one’s benefit) which essentially result in a phenomenon where the significant surge in the value of coin followed by a huge crash take place in a short time frame.
Recovery phrase:
A set of phrases you are given whereby you can regain or access your wallet should you lose the private key to your wallets — paper, mobile, desktop, and hardware wallet. These phrases are some random 12–24 words. A recovery Phrase can also be called as Recovery seed, Seed Key, Recovery Key, or Seed Phrase.
REKT:
Referring to the word “wrecked”. It defines a situation whereby an investor or trader who has been ruined utterly following the massive losses suffered in crypto industry.
Ripple:
An alternative payment network to Bitcoin based on similar cryptography. The ripple network uses XRP as currency and is capable of sending any asset type.
ROI:
Return on investment.
Safu:
A crypto term for safe popularized by the Bizonnaci YouTube channel after the CEO of Binance tweeted
“Funds are safe."
“the exchage I use got hacked!”“Oh no, are your funds safu?”
“My coins better be safu!”


Sats/Satoshi:
The smallest fraction of a bitcoin is called a “satoshi” or “sat”. It represents one hundred-millionth of a bitcoin and is named after Satoshi Nakamoto.
Satoshi Nakamoto:
This was the pseudonym for the mysterious creator of Bitcoin.
Scalability:
The ability of a cryptocurrency to contain the massive use of its Blockchain.
Sharding:
A scaling solution for the Blockchain. It is generally a method that allows nodes to have partial copies of the complete blockchain in order to increase overall network performance and consensus speeds.
Shitcoin:
Coin with little potential or future prospects.
Shill:
Spreading buzz by heavily promoting a particular coin in the community to create awareness.
Short position:
Selling of a specific cryptocurrency with an expectation that it will drop in value.
Silk road:
The online marketplace where drugs and other illicit items were traded for Bitcoin. This marketplace is using accessed through “TOR”, and VPNs. In October 2013, a Silk Road was shut down in by the FBI.
Smart Contract:
Certain computational benchmarks or barriers that have to be met in turn for money or data to be deposited or even be used to verify things such as land rights.
Software Wallet:
A crypto wallet that exists purely as software files on a computer. Usually, software wallets can be generated for free from a variety of sources.
Solidity:
A contract-oriented coding language for implementing smart contracts on Ethereum. Its syntax is similar to that of JavaScript.
Stable coin:
A cryptocoin with an extremely low volatility that can be used to trade against the overall market.
Staking:
Staking is the process of actively participating in transaction validation (similar to mining) on a proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain. On these blockchains, anyone with a minimum-required balance of a specific cryptocurrency can validate transactions and earn Staking rewards.
Surge:
When a crypto currency appreciates or goes up in price.
Tank:
The opposite of mooning. When a coin tanks it can also be described as crashing.
Tendies
For traders , the chief prize is “tendies” (chicken tenders, the treat an overgrown man-child receives for being a “Good Boy”) .
Token:
A unit of value that represents a digital asset built on a blockchain system. A token is usually considered as a “coin” of a cryptocurrency, but it really has a wider functionality.
TOR: “The Onion Router” is a free web browser designed to protect users’ anonymity and resist censorship. Tor is usually used surfing the web anonymously and access sites on the “Darkweb”.
Transaction fee:
An amount of money users are charged from their transaction when sending cryptocurrencies.
Volatility:
A measure of fluctuations in the price of a financial instrument over time. High volatility in bitcoin is seen as risky since its shifting value discourages people from spending or accepting it.
Wallet:
A file that stores all your private keys and communicates with the blockchain to perform transactions. It allows you to send and receive bitcoins securely as well as view your balance and transaction history.
Whale:
An investor that holds a tremendous amount of cryptocurrency. Their extraordinary large holdings allow them to control prices and manipulate the market.
Whitepaper:

A comprehensive report or guide made to understand an issue or help decision making. It is also seen as a technical write up that most cryptocurrencies provide to take a deep look into the structure and plan of the cryptocurrency/Blockchain project. Satoshi Nakamoto was the first to release a whitepaper on Bitcoin, titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” in late 2008.
And with that I finally complete my odyssey. I sincerely hope that this helped you and if you are new, I welcome you to crypto. If you read all of that I hope it increased, you in knowledge.
my final definition:
Crypto-Family:
A collection of all the HODLers and crypto fanatics. A place where all people alike unite over a love for crypto.
We are all in this together as we pioneer the new world that is crypto currency. I wish you a great day and Happy HODLing.
-u/flacciduck
feel free to comment words or terms that you feel should be included or about any errors I made.
Edit1:some fixes were made and added words.
submitted by flacciduck to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. Faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, R&D roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships  
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

A guide to Smart Contracts

A guide to Smart Contracts

https://preview.redd.it/ysi74g2vn3251.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=63875e316556c41144ad81cf061caf5bb3f4680d
We all have heard the term Smart Contract. When Satoshi invented Blockchain, it was meant to perform transactions only. Ethereum smart contracts made it the prime choice to build Dapps over it. Smart contract enhanced Ethereum’s functionality and makes it different from the traditional blockchain (Bitcoin). This functionality was replicated by other newer Blockchains.
What are Smart Contracts?
Smart contracts can be defined as self-executing applications that run on a blockchain. It is an agreement between two or more parties in the form of a computer code that runs on a decentralized network in a blockchain. It consists of a set of defined rules which are agreed upon by the involved parties. The contract automatically gets activated whenever certain conditions are met.
This idea will remove the involvement of any trusted third-party companies (such as banks) and will be controlled by computers on a trusted network.
Ethereum is one of the most popular blockchain platforms for creating smart contracts. It supports a feature called Turing-completeness that enables the developers to build customized smart contracts. Solidity, Ethereum’s original coding language is used to develop smart contracts. Ethereum blockchain's ERC-20 and ERC-721 tokens are smart contract standards.
Who created it?
Nick Szabo, a computer scientist, and cryptographer, first described the idea of Smart contracts in the ‘90s. He worked on the concept of defining contract laws in businesses between parties by maintaining an electronic commerce protocol on the Internet.
He further designed Bit Gold, a mechanism for a decentralized digital currency in 1998. Though the idea was never implemented it created a base that led to the popularity of Bitcoin after 10 years.
Properties:
· Self-verifiable
· Self-executable
· Tamper Proof
Benefits of using Smart Contract
· The removal of third-party or middleman leads to direct and transparent communication between involving parties
· Helps in maintaining trust as the agreement rules were predefined and agreed by the parties involved
· Helps in reducing error and frauds
· Time and cost-efficient
· No single point of failure or data loss as data is distributed across the network

https://preview.redd.it/1e5ahcqxn3251.png?width=1024&format=png&auto=webp&s=f8a1ebb9b3a84dd721fb32f96fc1950899bc3015
Different objects of Smart contracts
There are three essential and main objects of Smart Contracts
· Signatories- The parties who use the smart contract.
· Agreement subject
· Terms and Condition-. Details like rules, obligations, and associated punishments, etc are mentioned as terms and conditions as appropriate.
How Smart Contract works
Ethereum has 2 types of accounts
· External accounts (user account) - Controlled by public-private key pairs
· Contract accounts - Controlled by the code stored together with the account
These accounts contain four fields:
· The nonce, which ensures that each transaction can only be processed once
· The current ether balance of the account
· The contract code of the account
· The storage of the account
Model steps
  1. External account executes a function:
a. The user initiates the process by signing the transaction using his private key corresponding to the account.
b. Local validation of the transaction happens. It is broadcasted to the network.
c. The transaction is added to the transaction pool. The mines maintains such pools.
  1. Generate EVM bytecode through compiling
  2. EVM
a. EVM is a powerful, virtual sandbox embedded within each full Ethereum node
b. The job of the EVM is to update the Ethereum state by computing valid state transitions as a result of smart contact code execution
c. The EVM should not run into any exceptions during the execution
  1. Get contract address from that transaction's receipt
  2. Trigger contract address to invoke methods of that deployed smart contract
  3. Upon receiving a newly created block, the local node executes all the transactions in the block.
The accuracy and quality of a smart contract depends on the following things
· Open and decentralized database
· The environment needs to support the use of public-key cryptography
· Quality programming is crucial.
· Data should be reliable.
· Robust rules should be used while automating the process.
Features
Smart contracts automatically support the features of underlying blockchain technology.
· Autonomy – Complete control of the involving parties. No need of middleman as in the case of traditional contractual system
· Speed – Automated computer code runs as soon as the input criteria fulfill, thereby eliminating the delays caused by manual paperwork activity
· Safety – Network encryption guarantees safety against data theft or hacking
· Savings – No doubt that the removal of middleman saves a lot of overall cost and time
· Accuracy – Since these smart contracts are automated software codes so they ensure accurate output as long as the data fed into the system as input is accurate
· Trust – Helps in building trust as the documents are encrypted in a shared ledger
· Backup – Since in Blockchain network, each node has a complete backup of data which ensures protection over data loss
Potential Use cases
Smart contracts can be used to exchange money, property, shares, or anything without any intervention of middleman. They are now gaining popularity and adaption in various sectors. Some of the main sectors are as follows:-
· Insurance Companies
· Health Systems
· Government’s administrative work.
· Business Management
I will cover each of the potential use cases in detail in my future articles separately.
Conclusion
Smart Contract is the greatest innovation built on Blockchain technology. We can say it as a cherry over the pie. It has given a new dimension to technology and is one of the biggest reasons behind the popularity of Ethereum.
We can say without any second thought that very soon we will be entering into the era where there will be no intervention of any third party. In this way, it can help us in saving a lot of money, time, and effort. Also, we don’t need to be dependent or trust anyone while taking any crucial transactions. This will surely help in reducing fraud, unnecessary delays, and the overall cost of transactions. Smart Contracts will make many transactional jobs redundant. We can be hopeful that further development in technology will open sources for many other new jobs.
Read More: Understanding Hard Fork
Register in Crypto.com and get $ 50. Link here.
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submitted by RumaDas to BlockChain_info [link] [comments]

Weekly Update: $BOMB SWOT Analysis, HYDRO dApp store, Silent Notary Consilium, Job Opening at OST... – 20 Sep - 26 Sep'19

Weekly Update: $BOMB SWOT Analysis, HYDRO dApp store, Silent Notary Consilium, Job Opening at OST... – 20 Sep - 26 Sep'19
Hiya folks! Happy Diwali to everyone. Here’s your week at Parachute + partners (20 Sep - 26 Sep'19):

Tons of quizzes and contests this week at Parachute + TTR. Doc Vic hosted a trivia on medicine and another one on WW2 this week in TTR. A total of 50k $PAR given away. Victor hosted another trivia there too for 25k $PAR. Sweet! The Big Brother contest came to a close with the finale this week. The winner of Big Brother was Michie, who sadly no one picked. So all 21 participants won 5K $PAR each! Another 70k $PAR was given out to other winners. Plus, $202,500 PAR have been awarded in the various Big Brother contests earlier. Huge! Thank you Gian for doing all of this. And did you get a chance to partake in Tiproom’s Mememania? 50k $PAR in prizes – 25k for top 10 winners and another 25k for 100 memes. Next week’s update will feature some of the funniest memes from the contest. Richi hosted a Movie Trivia in Tiproom for a 25k $PAR prize pot for 10 questions. Woot!
Looking good Alexis!

Catch up on the latest at aXpire from the weekly update video compiled by Joakim. This week’s 20k $AXPR burn can be tracked here. CEO Gary Markham, who sits on the board of Hedge Fund Association, travelled to an HFA event to spread the word on the project. In the last update, we shared that 2gether was hosting a blockchain and tokenization based contest named Crypto Talent in partnership with IEB Spain for students and professionals. Read more about it here. News of the competition was shared on Cointelegraph as well. You can also listen in to Founder Salvador talk about the contest here and here. Check out the 2gether T-shirt that the team wore to the South Summit next week. Neat! CEO Ramon spoke at the Finnovista Pitch Day about FinTech innovation. Salvador’s interview along with a profile of 2gether was published in The Blockchain Land. The winner of the Birdchain Art Contest was announced this week. Congratulations! Plus, some news updates on the app were shared as well.
Birdchain Art Contest winner. Wicked!
Last week we shared that the $XIO ERC20:BEP2 bridge testnet trials have gone well. Here’s a sneak peek into how it looks. Once activated (condition to the acceptance of the Binance Dex listing application), the bridge will be open for roughly a month*. Dash also talked about 3 marketing mistakes that crypto startups make commonly – paying for PR (earned media > paid media), focus on follower count (organic reach > vanity metrics), airdrops (unless done strategically). If you had questions on how the XIO system will work and help startups scale, then fret not. Zachary wrote an article and video explaining it all. The community also voted this week to opt in for an SMS update option if there were ever one. The $BOMB community survey results are also out. This set the basis for a detailed SWOT analysis of the token. An excerpt from Benjamin’s 4% burn report was published on Coinbeat as well. In this week’s discussion series, Zachary reflects on market movements and the nature of the XIO incubator program.
\*[As of today, the switch to Binance Chain has been shelved. $XIO will stay on Ethereum. But there will still be a token swap. Details will be shared in a later update]
BOMB survey results show that the community is well distributed across the globe
Fantom’s Statheros stablecoin project will be partnering with a South African bank working on a mainnet launch. Initial details of the tie-up were released. The news was covered by CFN as well. CMO Michael travelled to a CFN event in London. Click here for pics. Technical Update #14 came out too. The big exclusive at Uptrennd this week was bagging an interview Andreas Antonopoulos. Awesomeness! Loopring CMO Jay sat down with founder Jeff to talk about the road ahead for the company. In this week’s public vote, the community voted to get TomoChain a free review from Altcoin Buzz. Community member Jackson Jerry took the initiative to deliver a presentation on the platform to thousands of students during a University Blockchain Awareness tour. Writers were in for a treat with the start of an article writing challenge with a 1,750 $1UP prize pool. Say what! Like last week, this week’s Meme Monday event saw some hilarious submissions. Uptrennd also got coverage on Micky News’ PR piece. Noice! Welcome to the Sentivate crew Jack! Learn about domain extensions and universal domain systems in this detailed article and thread by Sentivate founder Thomas. Tech enthusiasts were in for a treat this week with discussion threads on 5G and packet puzzles. The latest District Weekly from District0x covers mostly dev updates from the past week. Classic memes was the theme for this week’s Meme contest :p
Old school memes FTW! Lmao
Hydro got nominated for the Florin Asia Innovation Award. Good Luck! The Hydrogen dApp store was opened up for beta testers. The store is also open source. Great! Click here to read up on the structure of the dApp store and how it was built. A number of third party partners joined the store this week including 3Box, TotleCrypto and Carbon. General Operations Manager Marcco Paez sat down for an AMA with Crypto Nation to talk about Hydro. Hope you got a chance to get your questions answered. The team was at InsureTech Connect to represent the project. Want to check out an awesome spectacle? Hydro’s article on visualising code activity in decentralised projects has some uber cool visualisations. You could create one too using Gource. The latest developer update summarises all work done in the past week on the dev front. Silent Notary announced the launch of a Consilium system which will be using its own blockchain network (IDL) for legal actions on the platform. This was necessary since the Ethereum chain is anonymous and legal proceedings require identifiable actors. The $SNTR token will continue to exist on both chains (Ethereum and IDL). For more titbits on the update click here, here, here and here. For updates on Ubikiri, make sure to join the ann channel on Telegram started recently. Full list of socials can be found here. The $LAW referral bonus started last week has seen 4000+ wallets receiving the tokens so far with more on the way. Plus, the presale details are now available on the IDL site.
Hydro dApp store dev visualisation. Beautiful
Last week, the Arena Match community voted to decide which exchange to pursue for a listing of the $AMGO token. DDEX emerged as the winner of the vote. This week, $AMGO got listed on DDEX. Also, the much awaited review of the project by the Uptrennd team was published in two parts (Part I, Part II). Blockfolio and Delta accepted $AMGO for listing on their platforms. Woohoo! Job opening alert on OST: the team is looking for a Product Lead. Apply if you’re up for it. CEO Jason explained how adding friction in early onboarding process helps achieve product-market fit in this tweet thread. Congratulations to SelfKey for becoming an official member of CryptoUK, a self-regulatory trade association based in UK. If you have considered opening an offshore bank account, check out this article on the best countries to choose from. You can make your first move using the Wallet marketplace as well. Hope you took some time out to vote for SelfKey for the Blockchain Identity Management Use Case Award. Constellation’s partnership with the US Air Force was covered by Forbes this week. The team also announced a partnership with StackPath to make node deployment scalable for enterprise clients. Co-Founder Wyatt travelled to USC, Los Angeles, to a Hyperledger meetup to talk about how blockchain protocols can achieve elasticity. Click here to watch his presentation. Bags token launched a 10k $BAGS giveaway contest for helping spread the word on the project. Sweet! The first promo video is up on the BAGS TV YouTube channel. Check it out! An Upcycle Event in the BAGS Bazaar allows you to exchange some of your tokens for $BAGS. This week, they held their 4th Bazaar Upcycle event.

And with that, it's a wrap for this week at Parachute + partners. Ciao!
submitted by abhijoysarkar to ParachuteToken [link] [comments]

Detailed write up about EOS. Comments are appreciated.

#1 - What is EOS?

EOS has attained celebrity-like status in the cryptocurrency market - on the back of a very successful ICO, and because it’s seen a healthy rise in its price ever since news of its mainnet hit the markets.

EOS: The Basics

EOS is a decentralised operating system based on blockchain technology. It is designed to support of decentralised applications on a commercial-scale by giving all the required core functionalities. These enable businesses to build the blockchain applications in a manner that stays similar to that of web-based applications.
This blockchain network has also claimed to remove transaction fees and conduct millions of transactions within a second.

EOS Development

10% of these tokens are reserved for Block.one. Total of 20% EOS tokens was sold on Ethereum in the first 5 days of the entire 341 days long token sale. The remaining 70% tokens, that stand under the majority, are to be sold and produced at market value.
The startup, EOS ICO, managed to get $170 million in the first step, regardless of critics from numerous representatives on the blockchain community.
EOS is presently the fifth leading cryptocurrency of the world by market capitalization.

#2 - What are the benefits of EOS?

Technology

  1. The objective of EOS is to provide a decentralized platform to host applications, implement smart contracts and use blockchain for businesses while hoping to solve the scalability issues faced by pioneering cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.
  2. It will also eliminate the fees charged for transactions. It will accomplish this by using delegated proof-of-stake of the consensus protocol as well as by being multi-threaded (being able to run on various computer cores).
  3. The target of EOS is to be the very first operating system that will be decentralized. EOSIO provides a better developmental environment for decentralized applications, such as, BitShares, a platform for the decentralized exchange of cryptocurrency and Steemit, a social networking platform with monetary incentives.
  4. The native token, EOS, is a utility token that gives both storage and the bandwidth on the blockchain. It is proportionate to the entire stake (owning only 1% of EOS tokens permits the usage of up to 1% of the total bandwidth).
  5. These tokens also permit the owner to participate in the on-chain governance of the blockchain and to cast votes, in proportion to the stake of the owner.
The EOSIO platform will drop its vote for 21 block producers at the time of its launch that will further validate and generate blocks within the block time of 500 ms.
The smart contract and general language for building the entire platform is WebAssembly (C, C++, Rust) and a portable machine build at World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

#3 - How to buy and store EOS

How to buy EOS

The EOS coin is listed for trading on various trading exchanges all around the world, and is paired with a few major cryptocurrencies like BTC, ETH, BNB, KRW, and USDT, which is a pro for the user of EOS as this allows the users to access or obtain the EOS token by using their present ETH, BNB, BTC, USDT, or KRW.
The entire list of trading exchanges for EOS token includes major global exchanges such as Binance, KuCoin, Bitfinex, Huobi, and more. It has over 120 pairings available across nearly as many exchanges - allowing users to purchase EOS using BTC, ETH, USDT and other major cryptocurrencies.
  1. While cryptocurrency exchanges provide you a platform to buy or sell the EOS cryptocurrency, CoinSwitch, cryptocurrency exchange aggregator comes in to help you make the right decision by providing the prices for EOS on multiple crypto exchanges. It supports more than 140 coins and 45,000 pairs of cryptocurrencies.You can choose whichever pair you want with your token and compare the prices at exchanges. This way you can choose the best deal for you!
  2. What’s more - with CoinSwitch, you do not rely on a separate wallet from the exchange to store your EOS cryptocurrency. Instead, all transactions happen to and from your own personal private wallets.

EOS Storage

EOS is an ERC20 token - which means it can be stored on any wallet that supports Ethereum. While this will change once EOS releases its own mainnet, currently a EOS wallet that you can use can be one of the following:

#4 - What is the future of EOS token?

Trends so far

  1. EOS’s company, Block.one, is registered in Cayman Islands. It began offering EOS tokens to the public in June 2017. It raised $700 million during its ICO - a fairly large amount and a testament to the support it has received from the masses.
  2. An online, wiki-based encyclopedia, Everipedia, has announced its plans for using EOS blockchain technology on 6th December 2017. As soon as the Everipedia is decentralized and hosted on EOSIO platform, few countries such as Iran and Turkey that have blocked Wikipedia, will not be able to block it any further via Everipedia’s fork.

EOS Global Acceptance

The Market Cap ranking of the EOS cryptocurrency is 5th, and it holds a market capitalisation of $10.9 billion USD as of June 2018. A total number of 900 million EOS coins are in circulation.

Future Prospects

#5 - How is EOS different from other cryptocurrencies?

  1. One aspect that makes EOS entirely different and better than all the other cryptocurrencies is that it does not charge any transaction fees.
  2. EOS is a decentralized platform that has room for far higher scalability. While both Ethereum and EOS are platforms that can run smart contracts, EOS claims to offer faster transaction times, and quicker execution. It can further support industrial-scale decentralized applications.
  3. While Ethereum uses a Proof-of-Work (PoW) model for its mining operations, EOS will use a Delegated Proof-Of-Stake (PoS) model for EOS mining - which is far faster, and will not be as energy intensive as mining generally is.
  4. While developers on blockchains typically have to use a specific language to build their applications, EOS allows developers to compile in Web Assembly, which means developers can use C++ to build their applications!

#6 - Should you invest in EOS?

The Good:

  1. It is likely to be the first third-generation blockchain to reach out to the market.
  2. Unique features: - It has parallel processing that is good for scalability. - It has no transaction fees, block producers paid out by inflation.
  3. There is an inflation build in the token model, which will help the block producers earn incentives when performing their work.
  4. It will also have a process for the recovery of an account if you tend to lose your private keys. It will make human readable account names.
  5. EOS has a massive reserve so far. Due to its initial coin offerings, it has earned billions of dollars. The platform has created a large ecosystem fund with this reserve.
  6. Companies and organizations can easily make decentralized applications with the help of this platform.

The Bad:

EOS has a lot going for it. This is why it raised over $700 million in its ICO in the first place. You already know how to buy eos coin by now. Whether you should buy and hold, is a decision that will require more deliberation, as with any other cryptocurrency.
submitted by perky_coder to eos [link] [comments]

Cocos-BCX:The decentralized gaming application & crypto assets creation platform

Cocos-BCX:The decentralized gaming application & crypto assets creation platform

I. Project Overview

Cocos-BCX is a platform used for the development, operation, management and transfer of decentralized applications and in-application assets on the blockchain ecosystem. The platform mainly includes three function modules:
(1)The application development framework that supports multiple operating systems and various blockchain environments.
(2)Completely scripted, componentized and data-driven application development tools;
(3)An improved blockchain system, which is oriented to high performance applications and based on graphene technology framework, and its related functional components.
Cocos-BCX can allow developers to perform programming, debugging, and publishing of decentralized applications oriented to the blockchain environment, and hybrid architecture applications. Meanwhile, the platform integrates the distributed user account system, wallet and digital asset circulation platform based on the blockchain, which can realize the permanent saving and cross-chain use of in-application assets.

II. Project evaluation

(一) Market analysis

1. Market conditions | 8 points

The organizing pattern of productivity dominated by governments in some areas or industrial domains is apt to change in the context of bottlenecks existing for global scientific and technological progress, rising resource consumption, an aging population, and intensified geopolitical conflicts. In particular, in 2008, when Nakamot published his thesis "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System", discussions on blockchain and digital currency have gradually extended from technological aspects to economic, social and political, and other fields. The general public have begun to pay close attention to the impact of blockchain on social development as well as the role of digital currency in the world economy. Based on the decentralized characteristics of the blockchain and the vibrant vitality of the digital economy, the general public has enough confidence to predict that the decentralized "digital assets" will be a sweeping trend in the future, and will derive new business models and social values.
At the same time, in the development process of decentralized applications of different types, the game industry enjoys unique development advantages, because the game's production mode is the most sophisticated, enjoys the highest degree in terms of commercialization, and is one of the scenarios with the most profound foundation in terms of developers and users.
u Analysis: The game field has a huge room for development, which is highly consistent with the characteristics of the blockchain, and accords with the future development tendency of the digital economy.
The digital asset economy model carried by the project through the blockchain technology will assetize the content produced by the developer, enable the developer to continue reaping benefits during the use, management and transfer of his assets, and provide him with a convenient, decentralized game distribution channel; meanwhile, it helps players to transform the data formed by time and energy as well as the props they obtain as a result of their consumption into the assets that can be safely stored and circulated, offering players the right to manage and commercialize them.

2. Competition | 8 points

Since the last century till now, owing to the sustained efforts and promotion by a variety of IT technology game enterprises, the national and even global online game market is developing by leaps and bounds. If there is no systematic risks, such as policy regulation, vicious incidents and other factors, there will be no smooth and endless development momentum unless something unexpected happens. However, an objective analysis reveals that the current online game market is still dominated by IT technology companies, and even in a controlled and monopolized development, which, of course, also brings substantial profits, such as Tencent, Blizzard Tech.
u Analysis: It can be predicted that the Cocos-BCX project will hardly have any direct competitors in the strict sense for the time being, but will encounter a marginal pressure competitive environment from two dimensions. In summary, the classical IT game companies at home and abroad are massive in size and have obvious capital advantages. However, the Cocos-BCX project has an advanced philosophy and cutting edge technology, and thereby enjoys first-mover advantages for a breakthrough; The blockchain game project of the same business is currently marked by wide participation and generic applicability. But in comparison, the Cocos-BCX game industry has such advantages as a salient background, special project orientation and sophisticated development in technical modules, and therefore has greater development potential.

(二) Token Status

1. Token situation | 6 points

(1) Basic situation of Token
Token name: COCOS
Total tokens in circulation: 100 billion
Consensus mechanism: DPOS
(2) Token usage and allocation
Part I 82%: Cocos-BCX is used for the platform community construction in various ways, including but not limited to the witness' block reward, incentives for platform ecological developers, global community construction, marketing and promotion, industry alliances, eco-investment, research, financial and legal compliance. The use of this part of Cocos-BCX includes swapping by means of the consensus work contributions, free gifts, gifts in exchange for service, and gifts in exchange for other tokens, etc.
Part II, 18%: Cocos-BCX is intended as incentives for the sponsoring team of the project. The incentive part will set up a locking mechanism, which will be issued and unlocked one-third at the end of each year after Token generation, and the issuance will be completed within three years.

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u Analysis: The use of Token is mainly divided into two parts, among which, 82% is used for project development and construction. The remaining 18%, which has a locked position mechanism, is intended for team incentive and construction. The use design is rather rational, but the team part is slightly higher. Given that the industry is in the initial stage of development, it is of great importance to seize the first opportunity and acquire early traffic users. It is suggested that the proportion of Token used by the team be reduced slightly, which is more conducive to the long-term development of the project. It should be noted that the original holding distribution of Token has not been queried via the official channel, while this link for the conventional blockchain project are basically disclosed. Meanwhile, from the standpoint of ordinary investors, Token’s original holding ratio is also one of the important parameters for its investment.

2. Ecological cycle | 8 points

(1)The Token (COCOS) positioning of the platform: circulation media and governance proof in eco-economic activities
COCOS not only serves as a value exchange carrier and community participation proof for Cocox-BCX, but its orientation as a basic pricing Token is likely to play a critical role in the digital asset ecosystem. With the continuous development of the industry, a large quantity of decentralized digital assets will exist in multiple blockchain ecosystems according to different standards in the future, and the value existing in asset pricing media transcending the chain ecology will be infinitely magnified.
, which is specifically manifested in that developers and users can evaluate, compare, trade and manage digital assets of different chain ecosystems, worldview content, and technical standards based on COCOS. Meanwhile, as a primary and basic pricing medium, COCOS is positioned to become the necessary conditions for the blockchain industry to develop and trade financial products and derivatives of digital assets in the future.
(2)Basic use model of Token (COCOS)
Ø Value exchange medium within the platform ecosystem;
Ø Entrusted consensus equity share representative of the Cocos-BCX public blockchain;
Ø The reference and basis for the measurement of the participation in and contribution to the platform community.
(3)How to obtain Token (COCOS)
Ø Value creation: It includes the contribution of the behavior of creating digital assets, that is, developing games, making props, etc.
Ø Platform contribution reward: Users who contribute to the Cocos-BCX community is entitled to COCOS;
Ø Market transaction: Selling the prop assets obtained in the game to get COCOS;
Ø Behavioral incentives: Various effective behaviors within the Cocos-BCX platform, community and platform games will be converted into COCOS
according to a certain contribution degree.
u Analysis: The use model, scenario application, acquisition method, market orientation, etc. for the Token ecosystem design are all well deliberated, to be verified by the market.
The ecosystem design of the Token project not only takes the macroscopic use model and scenario application, but also gives a detailed description of the acquisition method. Another point that must be pointed out is that it has a clear market orientation and future prospect as soon as the design begins, therefore, in general the Token ecosystem design is well-considered and far-sighted. However, for the volatile blockchain market, the crux depends on whether the ecological design philosophy can keep pace with the times, which is very essential. In a word, in the face of massive uncertainties, it needs to be finally verified by the market.

(三) Team member

1. Founder | 8 points


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Haozhi Chen
China's renowned Internet serial entrepreneur, and has successively led and participated in the creation of Joyo.com, Xcar.com.cn, and cdn.yeeyan.org since 1999, and founded Chukong Technology in 2009. Chukong is a leading game development and distribution enterprise in China and a major maintainer and supporter of the Cocos-BCX global open source game engine and developer community.

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Xiaolong Yang
With over 14 years of experience in technology entrepreneurship and investment, he once co-founded China's leading entertainment social networking company. As an investor, he once worked for China's leading private equity fund, during which period, he led and participated in investment projects totalling over 1 billion US dollars, and realized the exit of some projects at home and abroad. His interests and expertise mainly concentrate on information technology of the global primary market and secondary market in the later stage, and macro multiple asset category investment, and has a profound understanding of the financial market mechanism and asset pricing. He is also an investment partner in China's major technology investment fund and provides counselling for Chinese and American hedge funds, venture capital funds and large enterprises.
u Analysis: Chen Haozhi, as a founder, has rich experience in the game industry, and enjoys widespread networking and abundant resources in the industry as being one of the early Internet entrepreneurs; Another founder, Yang Xiaolong, has a strong experience in technology venture capital investment, and has the expertise for global investment layout. On the whole, two co-founders have a prominent advantage in overall industry background and integrating resources.

2. Founding team | 8 points


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Kevin Yin: An early contributor of CocosChina community, NOI winner, and ACM guest. A senior developer of blockchain, and having years of experience in compilation and distributed computing. An investor of the blockchain technology.
Jane Jin: Responsible for CocosChina community, the "Aipuworks" incubator, etc., and an expert of the Techincal Committee for Blockchain, China Software Industry Association. Bachelor of Economics, Zhejiang Gongshang University, and mini-EMBA of Tsinghua University. He once served important functions in "Fortune Global 500" including Lucent, Nortel, NSN, Nokia, Intel and other multinational companies in the marketing, sales, executive and developer relationship domain.
James Jeon: Responsible for the business development strategy and implementation of the project's South Korean section. From 2012 to 2015, he served as CEO of Gurum Company, a South Korean subsidiary of Chukong Technologies, earning an annual revenue of over $30 million from the scratch for the South Korean company and leading the South Korean subsidiary in going public successfully.
Frederick Lim: Responsible for the business development strategy and implementation of the project's South Korean section. From 2014 to 2015, he served as co-CEO of Gurum Company, and was once the director of the Strategic Investment Department of Hyundai Group, responsible for investment in Internet, communication, telecommunications and other fields. He is a doctor of Engineering Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea.
Hirokuni Fujita: originally head of the Japanese subsidiary of Chukong Technologies. He graduated from Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, majoring in Interdisciplinary Cultural Studies.
Jason: preacher of the Cocos-BCX community and meanwhile, senior manager of the Cocos 2d-x global community. He started to program on the Commodore-64 computer when he was 8. In addition to developing the community, he was keen on studying mathematics, finance, C++ and improving his Chinese proficiency.
Qinzhou Wang: Since entering the game industry in 2009, he has worked in the brand market in ZOL. Com. CN, Howell Expo, host of ChinaJoy, and is responsible for the brand market in Chukong Technologies.
u Analysis: The special technological talent construction of the team technicians needs to be further strengthened. At present, there is a blockchain technician. The game background and the advantages of the international architecture building enjoy prominent advantages, and there are sufficient team members on the strategic level and in the aspect of ecological construction. It is worth mentioning that team building is stable, and there is a high level of consensus among team members, which is conducive to the robust development of the project.
One member of the founding team has experience in the blockchain project development, that is, Chief Technical Officer, who is a senior blockchain developer. He has many years of experience in compiling and distributed computing, and is also a technology investor of blockchain.
In the early stage, owing to the demand of the game industry in the Japanese and Korean markets, Japanese and Korean market leaders were specially arranged in the early team structure of Chukong Technologies. In particular, due to the prosperity and popularity of the game industry in the Korean market, two co-leaders were specially arranged for the Korea market, responsible for strategic and investment issues respectively.
Consultant Team | 8 points

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Zhe Wang: Founder of the Cocos engine, and CEO of Xiamen Yaji Software Co., Ltd. He graduated from Department of Electronics, Nanjing University, and later studied a postgraduate program at Department of Management Science, Xiamen University. He created the Cocos engine in 2011, which currently has 1.1 million registered developers worldwide and 300,000 monthly active developers in over 200 countries and regions in the world. The Cocos engine has arrested the attention of platform vendors at home and abroad, and has established a long-term cooperative partnership with Microsoft, Google, ARM, Intel, Qualcomm, Samsung, Huawei and Tencent, etc.
Edith Yeung: One of some "Silicon Valley's Must Meet" investors as covered in Inc magazine. She is the head of 500 Startups, Silicon Valley's famous venture capital company and incubator in Greater China, and meanwhile, manages a Mobile Collective fund worth tens of millions of dollars. She has invested in over 40 mobile Internet, VR, AR and AI start-ups, including Hooked (App store's No. 1 reading App), DayDayCook (one of Asia's largest food communities), Fleksy (acquired by Pinterest), Human (acquired by Mapbox), AISense and so on.
u Analysis: The consultant team has obvious advantages in technological achievements, rich experience in technology innovation investment and incubation experience for startups.
The consultant team consists of a Maker-oriented technical talent and two venture capital managers with a senior venture capital background, among whom, Wang Zhe, technical consultant, graduated from Department of Electronics, Nanjing University and CEO of Xiamen Yaji Software. Wang is the founder of Cocos-BCX engine. At present, the Cocos engine has 1.1 million registered developers and 300,000 monthly active developers in over 200 countries and regions worldwide.

(四) Tech Analysis

1. Tech highlights | 9 points

(1) Smart contract system which can be updated iteratively: The smart contract system, represented by Ethereum, is not subject to modification once its definition is published, making it difficult to meet the volatile demands of market. Therefore, an iterative smart contract system is designed to address this pain spot.
(2) Prop circulation platform: Unlike conventional game transaction platform, Cocos-BCX's decentralized digital asset circulation platform does not have intermediary agencies. Players can complete the transfer and purchase of non-homogeneous assets, including "game gold coins" and prop assets acquired in the game on the prop circulation platform. In the whole process of transfer, the platform will adopt smart contract for automatic matching to help users complete the transfer process more efficiently.
(3) Game interactive operation environment:
Based on the judgment of the operation environment characteristics of blockchain games in the future, Cocos-BCX has designed a set of integrated operation environment that accommodates various types of APPs, as well as the supporting interoperability interface. Combined with COCOS Creator, it simplifies the process of docking game programs and blockchain, making intra-chain interaction transparent to developers, and allowing conventional game developers to develop or migrate blockchain game without a threshold.
(4) Mapping gateway that supports multi-chain and asset riveting:
Cocos-BCX provides a set of mapping gateways used for the automatic mapping of game gold coins and props. Under the unified value measurement system, it realizes the smooth transition of different in-chain game content and different platform content. The content that can be used for mapping includes game gold coins, game equipment data, etc.
(5) Transaction authentication mechanism that prevents BP/developers from cheating:
BP, as the core of transaction processing and communication of the whole network, can know the processing result of the latest transaction prior to general nodes. Therefore, BP enjoys a priority for information with timeliness or confidentiality
, as compared with general nodes, so it has a cheating potential in terms of
information acquisition. To address the drawbacks of this technical link, five modular confrontation mechanisms has been specially designed to hold the likelihood of BP/developer cheating at bay.
(6) Economies Principle Design of Cocos-BCX:
The Cocos-BCX platform carries the game assets value created by developers by providing a complete set of functional components including the underlying public blockchain, digital property management, and exchanges. Its technology and governance structure design, based on the graphene standard, has the economic attributes corresponding to the DPoS consensus mechanism.
u Analysis: There are a multiplicity of technical highlights in that the overall technology construction shows characteristics such as rigid logic and prominent modularity, and various technical solutions and mechanisms with a strong pertinence have been put forward.
Based on the market pain spots of the game industry, and combined with the development opportunities of blockchain technology, the Cocos-BCX project puts forward a vision system to create consistence between the content producer and consumer in the digital world. In view of the initial intention of the project and the relatively profound background of the game industry, the overall technical structure design of the project is highly targeted and has a strong logic, which can be described as closely connected with each other. Based on the large technical framework system, each technical link and organization also has a strong sense of target and logical gene, and on this basis, many modular and modified technical programs or mechanisms have been proposed. However, it is worth noting that the synergy of a series of highlight technologies remains to be verified and examined. Meanwhile, attention should also be paid to the practicability and rationality.

2. Impossible Triangle | 7 points

(1) Decentralization
Ø Low fork risk: Cocos-BCX uses the DPoS consensus mechanism, which does not require miners to use mining machines for mining, and thereby it can effectively avoid the impact of centralized computing on the entire basechain, which in turn reduces a low fork risk. Under the DPoS mechanism, if a witness wants to fork by voting, it is necessary to guarantee that over one third of the witnesses violate this mechanism at the same time.
Ø Improved DPOS consensus mechanism: The consensus layer of the Cocos-BCX test chain adopts the DPoS consensus algorithm. The advantage characteristics of the improved edition DPOS are as follows: all active witnesses have the same block predefined probability as the witnesses' predefined algorithm in the DPoS consensus algorithm, which ensures that the block probability of all witnesses is consistent with the block reward.
Ø Lightweight node: In Cocos-BCX design, lightweight node is essentially an environment with chain interoperability. Unlike the whole node, the lightweight node does not require to synchronize the whole network data. Instead, it needs the contract information and environment data required for synchronous running. This design can greatly reduce the data volume and synchronization time required for node synchronization, enabling the in-chain game terminal software to have a capacity which is actually used and a plausible time cost.
(2) Security
Ø Player autonomy and asset security: Because of the open and transparent characteristics of the blockchain network, the digital asset information obtained by players in the game can be viewed through the blockchain.
Ø Guarantee by modern cryptography: Modern cryptography is a technology based on mathematics. Currently, it has been widely used in many industries in the Internet domain. Common symmetric encryption technologies include AES encryption used for WiFi, and asymmetric encryption algorithms (public and private key cryptography) RSA, ECC, etc., among which, ECC (Elliptic Curves Cryptography) is an encryption algorithm commonly used in the blockchain field.
Ø A transaction verification mechanism that prevents BP/developers from cheating: BP enjoys a priority compared with general nodes, so it has the probability to cheat in terms of information acquisition. Therefore, the BCX program has designed a set of transaction execution, messaging, and operating mechanisms to address the possible links that allow cheating by BP and developers.
Ø Iterative updated smart contract system: It can provide logical updating and loophole repair for the in-chain game smart contract, thus ensuring the security and timeliness of the smart contract.
(3) Expandability:
Ø Strong expandability of the top-level design of the project
The expandability of Cocos-BCX is powerful, which is specifically shown in a decentralized game production and an overall solution to the game economy operation established by means of the game engine, development environment and Cocos-BCX game chain.

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A business ecosystem is constructed based on the above overall solution, with the purpose of connecting the global game ecosystem. The main ecological links include developers, users, creative content, key ecological links and blockchain system, etc.

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Ø Expanded design of specific technologies and mechanisms
  1. Multi-platform game integration running environment: This platform is mainly characterized by four features, consistent and perfect chain interoperability interface, downward transparent accepting mode, encapsulated atomic operation and multi-platform compatibility.
  2. Interactive interface of blockchain:
Cocos-BCX provides a chain-interactive development environment so that developers can easily interact with the chain through this set of environment. Meanwhile, its blockchain interactive development environment provides development components compatible with multiple working platforms, including SDK for the Android and iOS system, javascript libraries for front-terminal web applications, and python and PHP libraries for back-terminal applications.
u Analysis: The expandability of the project's "impossible triangle" shows the most prominently, and the decentralized attribute is the weakest, whose security is between the two. However, the project takes the three into consideration in terms of the technical mechanism and program function. Yet, the focus is different.
The project interprets the “impossible triangle” by means of thinking and design that focus on technical aspects and key issues.
The security level first guarantees the assets security and freedom of the ecosystem participants, and meanwhile ensures the rationality and security of the overall framework design, and finally takes its system updating and safe recovery into consideration mainly by means of player autonomy, modern cryptography and transaction verification mechanism that prevents BP/developers from cheating.

3. Development difficulty | 8 points

According to the summary of the project white paper, the blockchain game can be generally divided into four developmental stages.
(1)Using the homogeneous assets for the settlement of the game "gold coins";
(2)Free conversion of the game "gold coins" and props;
(3)In-chain operation of critical rules;
(4)Overall in-chain operation of the game
The game in-chain operation is the final form of the industry. Based on the above summary, Cocos-BCX proposes the future development prospect, mainly represented in seven aspects:
(1)Players having a lightweight full-node environment;
(2)The service stack operating in the blockchain environment;
(3)The game engine as one of the node infrastructures;
(4)Providing a joint development/debugging environment including engine, visual IDE, and chain network interactive interface;
(5)a set of asynchronous consensus tasks between nodes to ensure the trustworthiness of the engine environment. This consensus may be based on the discrimination of feature code of
the engine critical function's target code
(6) The game code (contract) is executed by the secure virtual machine controlled by the engine, and the key numerical calculation of the contract may adopt
the “Trusted Execution Environment” scheme, which is executed independently of the main part of the contract;
(7) The key process of the contract is witnessed by the adjacent or related nodes (like players in a copy).
u Analysis: The project covers a multiplicity of technical characteristics and functional mechanisms. The overall development is rather difficult. However, it is highly practicable in terms of performance.
At the initial stage of the project, four stages of blockchain game development were analyzed. After combing, the highest prospect was proposed, implicating to create a complete multi-platform game running environment, which can provide game developers with convenience in developing blockchain games and a perfect ecological environment to the maximum, while bringing game users a brand-new gaming experience and a game form that transcends the previous ones.
Based on the initial project prospect, numerous technical goals and functional modules are listed, indicating that the technical support for the project vision is rather effective. However, as public blockchain of the industry application basis, it encompasses various technical applications and functional modules. Comparatively speaking, the development difficulty is rather big. Meanwhile, as released by the white paper, the theoretical throughput of the Cocos-BCX test chain can reach up to 100,000 tps. The actual throughput is approximate to 3,500 tps, and the block time is 3 seconds, that is, the information broadcast across the entire network is completed once every 3 seconds. It can be seen from the project technical performance data that it has a relatively strong realistic significance. Therefore, on the whole, the project puts forward a sizeable technical challenge, and in the meantime has a reasonable practicability, therefore, it is worthwhile to look forward to!

(五) Project status

1. Product | 7 points

(1)System-level products
Ø The application development framework that supports multiple operating systems and various blockchain environments.
Ø Completely scripted, componentized and data-driven application development tools;
Ø An improved blockchain system, which is oriented to high performance applications and based on graphene technology framework, and its related functional components.
Ø Supporting non-homogeneous wallets;
Ø A blockchain browser that supports the contract event subscription;
Ø Supporting the third-party non-homogeneous asset exchanges;
Ø Supporting the blockchain game developed by a third party;
Ø Cross-chain asset acceptance gateway.
(2) Functional products
Ø De-intermediary assets (prop) operation interface;
Ø Paradigms of non-homogeneous assets circulation platform;
Ø Supporting player autonomy and blacksmith shop mechanism;
Ø Visual IDE (including visual editing of the game program and contract);
Ø Complete wallet, user system and blockchain browser;
Ø Smart contract system that allows iterative updating.
u Analysis: According to the information released on the official website of the project, the timeline shows that the Cocos-BCX main chain has started the closed beta test in the third quarter of 2018. Based on the obvious characteristics of the project technology module, Cocos-BCX has launched two series of projects, namely, system-level and function-level products, including development frameworks, blacksmith shop mechanisms tailored to various operations and multiple environment.

2. Code updating | 2 points

u Analysis: It is learned from official communication that the source code of the project has not been made public for the purpose of keeping the project's trade secret confidential. It is planned that the project will be open source in the future after the ecological and system products become gradually stabilized.

3. Completion status | 8 points

u Analysis: The project has formulated an overall development plan and recent work tasks, and at the same time it has demonstrated its strong vitality through weekly report, timeline and development broadcast.
According to the official channel inquiry, the project has formulated the Roadmap for the 2018 key milestone quarter and the recent detailed work task breakdown plan, and the project has a very complete display system featuring three major development progresses:
(1) Weekly reporting system
(2) Project timeline
(3) Development broadcast
Through the Roadmap+ work breakdown + 3 major system model, the project's development trajectory and dynamics have been display in a basically three-dimensional, spatial, meticulous and detailed manner, and in the meantime, the powerful execution and self-vitality of the project have been also displayed.

(六) Institution enabling (Investors)

1. Cooperative institutions | 9 points


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u Analysis: Cocos-BCX has a wide margin for cooperation, and its cooperation institutions are not only numerous, but also mainly of leading and quality enterprises in the industry.
The cooperative institutions include HelloEOS, NEO, NEBULAS (chain), Loom, IMEOS.ONE, Kingsoft Cloud and SlowMist Technology, etc.
NEO is one of the earliest blockchain projects in China. It was officially created in 2014 and was open sourced in real time in Github in June 2015. Since its establishment, the NEO team has experienced ups and downs of the blockchain industry. This project can be said to be a veteran project in the industry. NEO combines with a series of technologies, such as point-to-point network, Byzantine fault tolerance, digital certificate, smart contract, superconducting transactions, and cross-chain interoperability protocols, to perform rapid, efficient, secure, and legitimate smart management of assets.

2. Investment institutions | 9 points


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u Analysis: There are numerous investment institutions, many of which are Class I institutions, with a strong institutional strength.
Investment institutions include NGC, Binance, INB Capital, Dfund, 500 Startups, BlockVC, OK Blockchain Capital, Yisu Capital, Xiong'an Capital, ONTology, FreeS FUND, NODE Capital, Consensus Capital, Hash Capital, NEO Capital, Ticker Capital , ContractVC, Junwu Capital, Candy Capital, Hofan VC, BMETA Capital, BYTE Capital, Nimble Capital, InsurFun, BA Capital, Consensus Lab, TOKENMANIA, Byzantium Capital, etc.
The rest investment institutions are also well-known. For example, DFUND was founded by Zhao Dong, a well-known figure in the digital currency domain in July 2017. Yisu Capital is engaged in the early investment and project cooperation, focusing on blockchain technology and big data intelligence analysis, and other domains.

(七) Drawing attention | 6 points


https://preview.redd.it/fa3k060vtb821.png?width=605&format=png&auto=webp&s=ca3b6a4b185c81bbafb5bccb571a43b9bbaba148
Project content description

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u Analysis: The game user and developer group are highly active, and meanwhile the publicity of the media and news client are enhanced. The overall heat and operation and maintenance thinking are well-balanced. However, the current community operation link is relatively weak, and requires improvement in the follow-up.
Presently, the number of community fans is small. Therefore, the operation link of project content is rather weak. However, media communication and news broadcasting, two links of propaganda and promotion efforts, are quite effective, basically realizing a timely and real-time posting of the latest developments of the project. Although the media and news client are widely disseminated, their social interaction is relatively weak. The social platform has its own communication limitations. However, it is highly involved in interaction.

(VIII) Social Response | 7.78

User A | Point: 7.9
Comment: From the perspective of production mode and commercialization, this game is the most sophisticated. So I think this project has a very extensive application scenario, especially for developers and users.
User B | Point: 7.0
Comment: Currently, it seems that the game industry is greatly influenced by macro policies. Tencent's recent performance is a case in point. However, the project orientation is quite good.
User C | Point: 8.0
Comment: The technical advantages of the project are particularly prominent, and it also seizes the development opportunities of the blockchain. However, ultimately it needs to undergo the test of the market.
User D | Point: 9.0
Comment: First of all, COCOS has a large number of developers, solid underlying technology and reliable team work, which is worth looking forward to. Of course, great "undertaking" calls for enormous input, especially in technology. The way is arduous and long. Come on.
User E | Point: 7.0
Comment:
As a game practitioner, I would talk something about Cocos-BCX project: when the concept of blockchain game is put forward for everyone to consider, at this stage, it is no doubt that the dimension (type) of the game is developed from the perspective of "inheritance" and "tracing its very origin". If the Cocos-BCX project can be applied by game developers in terms of "development kit", is easy to learn and use, and allows the mobile game developers to shift to the development of blockchain games without a threshold, then the game dimensions and users can be further expanded. In a word, phenomenal games of blockchain games need the support of Cocos-BCX and the efforts of developers, both of which are indispensable. It is hoped that the team will make great efforts in development and publicity. "Coin friends" may not need to know how the game is developed, but they will certainly care about its future space. Such evaluation can only be called prospects and expectations. It remains to be determined whether the project adopts capital operation or the mode as solid as the old engine of COCOS till the project is landed.

III. Evaluation Summary

The project orientation is accurate, and the team has a strong lineup. It merits pointing out that its technical strength and model architecture design are particularly prominent, and there are an array of investment and cooperation institutions with strong strength. However, at present, the code has not been open sourced and the community operation and maintenance is deficient. The information disclosure of the Token link is not particularly perfect, and individual investors may care much about it. The Roadmap of the project development is all too simple. These are the deficiencies of the project development at the current moment.
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BITCOIN BROKE $6,000!!! Going Parabolic?? $6,400 Resistance!! Binance Re-Org...

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